Wednesday, September 2, 2020
No Child Left Behind The enactment of Public Law 107-110 all the more prominently alluded to as No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is a push to perceive the criticalness of training as national and social issue. Ideologically, there is little uncertainty of the pertinence of the benefit of initiating instructive frameworks and gauges that guarantee access of training without separation. As per Kahlenberg (2003), social advancements are testing instructive frameworks not exclusively to guarantee adapting yet additionally to guarantee efficiency and social support. The arrangements perceive the one of a kind instructive difficulties introduced by the need to improve instructive principles for understudies, instructors, levels of capability, making social importance, creating organizations with guardians and the network, perceiving social and ethnic legacy, overhauling laws, resolutions and arrangements and creating adaptability and responsibility in training (US Department of Education, 2004) Need article test on No Child Left Behind point? We will compose a custom article test explicitly for you Continue Be that as it may, there has been importance pundit with respect to the NCLB. All in all, the center of the worry is about the disappointment of the NCLB program to impact the adjustments in instruction it has guaranteed. More regrettable, there are reactions that it has in certainty has deflected access to quality training (Houston, 2007). An assessment of the issue makes an acknowledgment that instructive change involves more than enactment yet necessitates that they can be operational in real settings (Pennington, 2007). The goal of this paper isn't to deny the significance or desperation of the targets of NCLB, anyway this examination will give proof that it has not had the option to convey the changes it imagined and that there is a need to alter the demonstration generously on the off chance that it is to be compelling (Noll, 2005). Issues and Concerns NCLB is portrayed as a result based: by setting high targets, instructive projects will be progressively compelling (Allen et al, 2007). For as far back as twenty years, there has been a functioning exertion to create social establishments that perceive and react to social, monetary and political components that influence learning methodologies, instructive projects and access to these projects (US Department of Education, 2004). Prior, concerns were fundamentally financial in nature and as of late, culture and ethnicity have gone to the front line. The essential inspiration driving the program is to guarantee access to training and to permit schools to create systems to improve execution and attainability of instruction programs (Johnson, 2001). Subsidizing One of the essential issues raised against NCLB has been in disappointment of subsidizing leaving programs not completely executed, it by any means. The government has been the most censures with respect to the issue that has just had a past filled with not organizing training spending (Nelson and Jones, 2007). The reliance on government subsidizing for the NCLB programs created from declining charge incomes and the establishment of administrative norms for understudies and teachers. Besides, Pennington (2007) calls attention to that the however the demonstration was an organization supported enactment, the President nor the Senate have really mentioned the assets as given (Cooper, 2007). Actually neighborhood governments don't have the ability to help the NCLB which thusly has made the prerequisites for instruction change however not the way to meet them (Noll, 2005). On a mental level, the need financing upholds the possibility that the changes to for execution are not viewed as earnest in opposition to the first reason of the enactment. There is likewise dread that the arrangements of NCLB are inciting a spiraling disintegration in instructive establishments. Consider this situation as indicated by the arrangements of the NCLB, schools that have performed well as indicated by all accounts are managed better financing as motivator. In any case, inability to fulfill guidelines of execution don't accommodate bolster projects and in this manner, schools who are now confronting critical pressure may additionally be burdened (Chubb, 2007). Social Conflicts NCLB has likewise been scrutinized to damage the state, security and social value. Instruction has generally been state-overseen however since NCLB is government enactment, states need to consent to the arrangements whether it is relevant to them or not and whether they have the way to actualize it. The states perceive the ideological estimation of the NCLB however call attention to that states ought to be claimed all authority to pick what arrangements are to be actualized (Noll, 2005). This isn't simply to help the intensity of the state over training enactment yet in addition to maintain the constitution that gives no establishment to government enactment on the issue. Another issue is the arrangement of the NCLB perceiving strict gatherings as instructors, making the qualified for open subsidizing. In spite of the fact that the arrangement can be considered as a push to perceive these gatherings, it likewise brings up the issue of the division of chapel and state (Lewis, 2007). An issue raised with respect to security has originated from the arrangements in area 9528 that necessitates that military enrollment programs be considered as organizations of advanced education. This gives them access to the individual data of all understudies without the need to advise guardians aside from on the off chance that they have straightforwardly quit from it. Questions in regards to the technique for isolating assets are likewise a worry (Gingrich, 2006). The NCLBs reformatory measures for schools that neglect to meet its necessities and in the event that they can fulfill the guidelines, the motivation is to have execution desires set lower. In the primary situation, it is seen that schools with issues will be left with even less competency to meet prerequisites while in the last situation, bringing down of desires energizes relaxing from guidelines or not having reasonable projects (Lang and Wilkinson, 2000). Normalization of Education Another significant issue is concerning usage of normalized projects and instruction appraisals. The study is that it leaves no adaptability regarding perceiving social conditions, culture or ethnicity among others in training (Chubb, 2007). Simultaneously, there are fears that attention on the government sanctioned tests won't take into consideration communitarian study hall experience (American Association of School Administrators, 1991). Promoters of the program, reason that NCLB can achieve this by setting non-prejudicial principles in appraisal. Be that as it may, the investigates are that the program doesn't think about the setting of issues or the accessibility of the projects in the state. The issue brought up specifically with local language appraisal that requires a capability test before taking and English capability test (Vance, 2004). At present, not more than ten satisfies have the projects set up and most of these projects restricted to Spanish capability testing. The NCLBs center around math and perusing as norms of execution additionally raise concerns with respect to the confinement it sets on understudies generally educational plans. Simultaneously, since the NCLB gives that states can plan their own norms of testing then this may inspire states to inadequately test understudies as a result of the reformatory measures and effect of subsidizing (Lang and Wilkinson, 2000). Another social issue identified with normalize testing that continues is the apparent social inclination. It has been built up that government sanctioned test commonly can not oblige completely for social characteristics, learning incapacities and different conditions that block understudies from most of understudies (Vance, 2004). End The issue of training is one that will consistently empower noteworthy discussion as a result of social criticalness and effect (Pennington, 2007). There is no uncertainty that the NCLB is a push to make better access to training and to make programs that are delicate and receptive to the growing needs of society. There is likewise no uncertainty that a significant number of its arrangements have demonstrated to be risky when applied. Past the managerial, social and operational worries of the program, there ought to be acknowledgment that the program makes a stage for misuse, debasement and amusingly, the decay of instructive norms (Noll, 2005). Thusly, this paper presumes that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has not been bunch to raise the nature of training extensively and neither will the current arrangements have the option to do as such (Cooper, 2007). In this way, a significant number of its underlying advocates, similar to Ted Kennedy now, incidentally, contradicting further usage (Lewis, 2007). There is acknowledgment that the relinquishment of the help to the program may likewise have its political inspirations however the absence of critical effect appears to help the possibility that the program has not had the option to satisfy its guarantee (Butzin, 2007). Disappointments in execution and activity have made political disparity concerning NCLB as well as the government instruction program as a rule (Gingrich, 2006). There ought to be an acknowledgment that changes must be operationally suitable and viable. All in all, the disappointment of the Act isn't on the grounds that the worries are not substantial but rather it has fizzled on account of the absence of managerial and operational prescience in executing the projects that has rendered the projects worthless if not an obstacle to its own goals. References Allen, JoBeth, Altwerger, Bess, Edelsky, Carole, Larson, Joanne et al. (2007). Standing firm on NCLB. Language Arts, 84(5), 456-464. Recovered August 8, 2007, from Research Library database, Document ID: 1272627141 American Association of School Administrators (1991). Learning Styles: Putting Research and Common Sense into Practice. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administ
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The iPhone 5. The iPhone 5The after definition is planned for giving straightforward data to all the individuals who are keen on this new bit of innovation the iPhone 5. The focused on crowd is made out of individuals from assorted proficient, instructive, and social foundations. This archive will be given to all the advertisers, PDA sellers, and delegate of call administration organizations who will go to the up and coming Accessible Cell Phone Seminar. Each one of the individuals who will go to will get both delicate and printed copies of this archive for their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ reference. The point of this archive is to scatter data about the iPhone 5, its history, ease of use, works, and recognize the iphone from different telephones. This report has utilized simple language and a straightforward configuration for better comprehension for every one of the individuals who mean to purchase the contraption. A very much delineated photo will show the crowd how the telephone looks like and its capacities. The implications of explicit words like IOS will be explained by incidental definitions. The crowd would have a ton of enthusiasm for the telephone since it is the best in class mechanical development ever. The data is introduced in a general way since they might not have had earlier presentation to the contraption. What is an iPhone 5? This Smartphone has both mixed media gadgets and web. It was conceived and is at present being showcased by the American Multinational Corporation, Apple Inc. This organization is the creator of PCs like the Macintosh, ipad, program, and buyer gadgets. This telephone is accessible in either a dark or a white shading. It utilizes GSM OR Edge innovation. It has a screen that is delicate to single or different contacts prominently known as contact screen. This screen is comprised of glass that is impervious to scratch and measures 9 cm. Its back is metallic for defensive purposes, and it serves as a reception apparatus. The iphone has five catches, two for volume guideline, and the rest control calls. Both speaker and amplifier are situated at the base of the telephone. It has inbuilt Bluetooth innovation that guides the working of remote earphones and earpieces. The telephone has an inside found battery-powered battery. Moreover, the iphone has a charger; on the other hand, it very wel l may be charged by a computerÃ¢â¬â¢s USB link. Different frill that the iphone has are a camera, a capacity SIM card, and memory card that can put away to 16 to 32 GB of information. A photograph representing the Touch Screen of the iPhone History of the Iphone Macintosh IncÃ¢â¬â¢s Chief Executive Officer, Steve Jobs, built up the iphone. Mac engineers were guided by Jobs to explore contact screens. Apple Inc built up the first iphone with a touch screen, in organization with ATT Mobility. The first iphone was propelled out in the open on January 9, 2007 at Macworld. In 2008, Apple discharged the iphone 3GS and this were made accessible in excess of eighty nations with in excess of 100 client dialects. The most recent discharge is the iPhone 5. Ease of use of the iphone Iphone has a solitary key, the home key. Along these lines, practically all connections between the client and the telephone are directed through the screen. In any case, the iphone screen doesn't support the utilization of a pointer. Rather, the client utilizes a finger or two to direct all collaborations with the iphone. Finger taps initiate most of the controls with the UI (User Interface). In any case, there are circumstances that call for further developed highlights. Swipes and the related signals, for example, flicking and hauling are utilized for looking through different records on the iphone. For example, if the iphone use hauls a finger on any scrollable rundown on the telephone, it results to the rundown following the finger consequently. Also, if the iphone client flicks a rundown thing all over, the screen looks toward the finger under its own order. The screen looks at a diminishing rate and in the long run stops all alone as though it is battling against some type of erosion. The client of the iphone can view such things as website pages and photographs in the event that they scroll controls along these lines. The iphone has extra propelled highlights; the client can utilize his/her finger to look over the screen of the iphone toward any path. The photograph watcher additionally uses flick type finger signals to look around different photographs. In any case, there are not many pieces of the iphone that involve the client sliding on an on-screen control with a finger. The most widely recognized exercises that are worked along these lines incorporate opening the iphone and turning off. The client moves the on-screen slider from the left of the screen to one side along the on-screen track with a finger. This procedure finishes the assignment. This element was created to stay away from the iphone from undertaking these exercises unintentionally. Ease of use of the iphone The iphone has developed quick in fame as more individuals are searching for telephones with numerous capacities. The iphone offers a blend of highlights, for example, a computerized camera, cell phone, an advanced music player, and GPRS usefulness. The iphone is fit for performing five significant capacities: 1. a light element, which permits the client to explore through the dull or discover lost things. 2. Geotagging, this extraordinary element, permits clients to find photographs that have been lost in the iphone. The tag gives the area of the photograph. 3. Google road see, this component permits the client to explore through the area through a guide that is situated on the telephone. 4. Slideshow, this element permits a simple perspective on photographs. 5. Voice order, this component permits the client to attempt look on Google. The component permits the iphone to change over voice into content. What makes iphone one of a kind? This telephone has amazingly incredible dampness sensors that are presented to the earth. These sensors appear if the telephone has been influenced by water. Sensors of normal telephones are situated inside the telephone. The client can't supplant the inside charged battery. This is its fundamental inadequacy however Apple replaces any broken battery without charging any expense. Its memory card can store a lot of information as opposed to the normal telephones. This telephone has two cameras dissimilar to the common telephones that have one. The camera can unmistakably select pictures in conditions with exceptionally low light. Dangers related with its utilization Like some other telephone, the iPhone 5 discharges innocuous radiation. Be that as it may, there is no information indicating that this radiation causes malignant growth. In any case, it one ought to abstain from utilizing the telephone while driving or working apparatus since mishaps will undoubtedly happen. Incidental terms and their characterized implications SIM card-Subscriber Identity Module, this gadget recognizes the endorser in gadgets like telephones and PCs. USB-Universal Serial Bus, this component of the iphone was intended for use in speaking with two gadgets like a mouse and the host controller or PC. GSM-Global System, this component is utilized for Mobile Communication. IOS represents iPhone working framework.
GilbertÃ¢â¬â¢s chronical of her own plummet into franticness is set in a remote, detached more established home, with extremely lovely environmental factors, and more specifically and old nursery in which Gilbert is detained for her own Ã¢â¬Å"sanityÃ¢â¬ . The unexpected point is that it is the remedy for her Ã¢â¬ insanityÃ¢â¬ that makes the madness she at last embraces. The storyteller is a curbed lady with no place to go aside from franticness. As a corresponding to Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬ s Ã¢â¬ Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ in which demise was the getaway to opportunity, Gilbert stresses that the storytellers just departure to opportunity was frenzy. The story is partitioned into time allotments with every period detailling her plunge into franticness. In the main segment it is shrewd to take note of that both John and her sibling are noticeable doctors and accept that she should be unstimulated so as to defeat post birth anxiety, as was rehearsed by such unmistakable scholar as Sels Weir Mitchell, who was in truth GilbertÃ¢â¬â¢s own doctor at the time the story was composed. ( as a side note: It is important to take note of that subsequent to perusing GilbertÃ¢â¬â¢s record of her own sentiments in this short story, Wier Mitchell ceased the utilization of Ã¢â¬Å"rest therapyÃ¢â¬ .) We find in later time periods that John is trying to claim ignorance of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s breaking down ailment, basically because of the cultural stigmaÃ¢â¬â¢s of dysfunctional behavior and the wealth of his status. The room that is the essential setting is organized and unstimulating. There is this dilapitated, detoriorating, rotten, yellow backdrop with a structure illustrative of GilbertÃ¢â¬â¢s franticness, that in the long run turns into her guardian angel. As she capitulates to dymentia, the storyteller has mind flights of a ladies behind the backdrop. The storyteller becomes persuaded this lady is Ã¢â¬Å"trappedÃ¢â¬ by the backdrop however yet, figures out how to effectively Ã¢â¬Å"escapeÃ¢â¬ regardless of whether just to lurk around the growth. The storyteller relates to the fancies, in the end manufacturing with the fancy, making the partition of one from the other incomprehensible. She portrays in detail the frightfulness of everyone around her as they become to understand the degree of the psychological maladjustment covered up in the storyteller. The speakerÃ¢ makes reference to sentiments of neurosis that John and Jenny are going to by one way or another barge in on the relationship she has with the backdrop, and concedes that she enjoyed the room inspite of the backdrop, no as a result of the backdrop. The backdrop speak to the storyteller., a possibility for opportunity and the expense was craziness, similarly as the complex structure that was a wrongdoing against all the standards of plan that had been suggested upon first thought.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Law with Tort of Negligence Essay The application is under s1 offer of merchandise act there is an agreement structure among me and Mandela where I have understanding, expectation and thought to purchase the easy chair from Mandela, therefore contract is structure. Other than that, easy chair is viewed as merchandise and there is thought of cash where I paid Mandela for $1500 and finally there is additionally move of property where I paid $1500 for the rocker from his shop. All in all the easy chair that I bought is under Sale of Goods Act. Another issue in the inquiry is whether we can demand Tyson (proprietor) remunerate me for $500 that I (purchaser) spent on fixing the seat and either return the seat and demand a discount, explicitly under buyer ensures s 55 readiness for reason? In the inquiry the law would be s 55 Ã¢â¬Ëthere is a suggested ensure that where the purchaser explicitly or by suggestion makes known to the merchant the specific reason for which the products are required, and shows that judgment and dealer, the merchandise must be sensible fit for purposeÃ¢â¬â¢, in light of the case Grant v Australia Knitting Mills and Wallis v Russell. In the inquiry Tyson has penetrate s 55 readiness for reason where he is selling furniture in his Classic Antiques Store however the furniture that he sell are delicate. In s 55 there is sure condition we should fulfill. To start with, purchaser should communicate or the merchant has known the purchaser specific reason for the products they required. Second, has the purchaser depended on the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability or judgment? Third, are the products of a depiction which it is over the span of the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s business to flexibly? Also, in conclusion, has the purchaser requested the merchandise under their exchange name with the goal that it is clear there is no dependence on the expertise of judgment of the vender? In view of the condition above, I had fulfilled all the condition, where I express to Mandela (sales rep) that I need to utilize the easy chair as my new house furniture. Then again, Mandela expressed that Ã¢â¬ËIt is a strong old thing. I sit on it constantly. Ã¢â¬â¢ Hence, I depended on his judgment and purchased the easy chair. Besides, Tyson business are selling furnitureÃ¢â¬â¢s where the rocker is considered as a furnishings, in this manner it is additionally fulfilled merchandise are spellbinding under the course of the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Ultimately, despite the fact that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t purchase the easy chair dependent on the exchange name, yet I depend on the expertise or judgment by Mandela. Taking everything into account, the merchant has penetrate all the models in s 55 and under s 261 purchaser reserve the option to pick either a discount or substitution of the items if provider neglect to satisfy with buyer ensure, accordingly I can demand Tyson remunerate me for $500 for fixing the seat and furthermore can restore the seat and demand a discount. Ã Based on the inquiry, the issues would be founded on MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation that Ã¢â¬ËIt is a strong old thing. I sit on it constantly. You will be utilized it securely for a long time. Will it persuade that it tends to be utilized as furniture and can be utilized securely for a long time, explicitly under shopper ensures s 18 Misleading or Deceptive direct? In the inquiry, the law would be s 18 where Ã¢â¬ËA partnership will not take part in lead that is misdirecting or tricky or is probably going to delude or deceiveÃ¢â¬â¢, in light of the instance of Eveready Australia Pty Ltd v Gillette Australia Pty Ltd ,H enjo Investment Pty Ltd amp; Ors v Collins Marrickville Pty Ltd and Taco Company of Australia Inc v Taco Bell Pty Ltd. In the application, there are 3 components which must satisfy break of s 18. As a matter of first importance, Mandela take part in lead with me that the easy chair is protected and can be utilized for a long time more which infer a bogus portrayal of the reality to me where the rocker was really delicate. Moreover, I buy the easy chair under exchange and business whereby under shared correspondence, and I arranged 30minutes orally with Mandela (sales rep) to sell me the rocker with $1500. In addition, Mandela lead was misdirecting or misleading where he expressed he sits on the rocker all the time where he really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sit on it and the way that the seat was really delicate. Allude to Taco Bell to decide if the lead is misdirecting or tricky that there are sure models to legitimize whether they are delude or bamboozled. To begin with, the lead depends on me which is supported the focused by the direct of the litigant. The time I was in TysonÃ¢â¬â¢s shop, Mandela frames a wrong end to me, that the easy chair is sheltered and can be utilized as furniture where it was not the reality. Thus, demonstrates the lead by Mandela talented of being deceiving or beguiling. Taking everything into account, Mandela has penetrate the 3 components in s 18 of ACL for misdirecting and beguiling. In light of the inquiry, Tyson is the proprietor of the shop (Principle), Mandela is the head supervisor and furthermore sales rep (Agent) and I am the purchaser (Third Party). In the inquiry the issue is whether Mandela had position to sell the seat at that cost under Agency extent of an agentÃ¢â¬â¢s authority? Law is express power where the understanding is made among special ist and head in the composed or oral structure dependent on the case John McCann amp; Co v Pow. Likewise, obvious authority is additionally applied here where the rule, either by words or direct, may prompts outsider mixed up to accept that an operator has position to follow up for the principleÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, in light of the case Tooth amp; Co v Laws. Besides, obligation of specialist where the operator must adhere to the legitimate and sensible guidance of the guideline and be straightforward in playing out the activity is set by the principleÃ¢â¬â¢, in light of the case Bertram, Armstrong amp; Co v Godfray. Subsequently in the application, Mandela has penetrate express authority under office where he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the oral understanding by Tyson to sell the easy chair for in any event $3500 and he sold the rocker for me with $1500. Other than that, under clear position, Tyson either by words or direct persuades that Mandela has power to contract for their benefit and I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize Tyson has taught Mandela to sell the rocker for at any rate $3500. In light of the inquiry, the issue is whether I can sue Tyson under tort of carelessness and guarantee remuneration? The law tort of carelessness was perceived for the situation Donoghue v Stevenson where the offended party must build up that, the litigant owed the offended party an obligation of care, the respondent penetrated that obligation, and in conclusion the offended party endured harm because of the break in tort of carelessness. Thus in the application, Tyson (respondent) has owed an obligation of care to me (offended party) in light of the test and relationship. All the hazard in the shop must be sensible predictable, anyway the easy chair was not sensible predictable where the rocker looked decent but rather really was delicate, despite the fact that Tyson puts a sign on the mass of the shop notice that Ã¢â¬ËPlease don't sit on the seat delicate thought about sold if damagedÃ¢â¬â¢ yet as a furniture shop, clients may need to attempt or test the nature of the items. Likewise, there is a defenseless relationship where Tyson recruits Mandela as a supervisor and salesman to control the shop, and I was dependent on Mandela, along these lines Mandela has the obligation to secure my wellbeing in the shop. Subsequently, Tyson has penetrate obligation of care under greatness of the danger of probability of the event where the rocker was not secured or obstructed to forestall client sitting on it which same case as Bolton v Stone. In this way, he had neglect to practice the necessary standard of care because of the easy chair being delicate and I sit on it, the seat had crumpled under my weight and has been harmed when I tumbled to the floor. Subsequently, I have endured harm because of the seat crumbled and I tumbled to the floor. Nonetheless, Tyson have resistances to carelessness under willful presumption of the hazard where the offended party had full and total information on the hazard where litigant had really put the sign on the divider that said Ã¢â¬Ëplease don't sit on the seat delicate thought about sold if damagedÃ¢â¬â¢. Other than that, the offended party had adequate energy about that specific hazard where offended party had saw the sign on the divider yet overlook the sign. In conclusion, there was willfully acknowledgment of that chance as the offended party realized the seat were delicate however doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind and sit on the seat. Thus, at respondent perspective offended party should bear the hazard. All in all, as I am the offended party I can sue Tyson under tort of carelessness and guarantee for remuneration, since Tyson should be increasingly mindful and spread or square the delicate furniture rather than simply putting a sign on the divider because of client may disregard the sign and sit on the seat.
Tuesday, June 30, 2020
In the years between Geoffrey of MonmouthÃ¢â¬â¢s (1136) History of the Kings of Britain, which featured tales of a young warrior who would become ruler of an empire, and the prison-inked Le Morte Darthur of Sir Thomas Malory, the religious landscape of Europe began to shift from thoroughly Christian to a mixture of traditional beliefs and newfound spiritualism. In detailed study on the religion of the period, Tanner (2009) highlights a declining population due to the Black Death, the spread of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, and general disillusionment with the church following the Western Schism as reasons for waning support for the church. Due to the rise of other religious beliefs during its composition and passages selected from the work, some critics have argued MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s (1485) Morte is a secularized telling of Arthurian lore rather than being influenced by Christianity. Even the seminal Holy Grail section, The Noble Tale of the Sankgreall, has been argued as a simplifi ed telling of the divine chalice that eschews the overly Christian elements in favor of a secularized account. Eugene Vinaver (1947) argues MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Grail section is the least original of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Writing of the translation from the source material, the French Vulgate Cycle La Queste de Saint Graal, Vinaver says: His attitude [toward the source] may be described without much risk of over-simplification as that of a man to whom the quest of the Grail was primarily an Arthurian adventure and who regarded the intrusion of the Grail upon ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom not as a means of contrasting earthly and divine chivalry and condemning the former, but as an opportunity offered to the knights of the Round Table to achieve still greater glory in this world. (1) This argument claims MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s work is secular in nature rather than inspired by Christian themes. The claim is flawed on its face as this research will prove. VinaverÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is refuted by Charles Moorman in his 1956 essay Ã¢â¬Å"MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Treatment of the Sankgreall.Ã¢â¬ In a detailed response to Vinaver, Moorman argues the Grail story must be viewed in context of the Morte as a whole. Furthermore, rather than seeking glory as Vinaver posits, Moorman argues MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Grail adventure is symbolic of manÃ¢â¬â¢s fall from GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"presenting the failure of the Grail knights as one of the major causes of the downfall of the Round TableÃ¢â¬ (497). However, MoormanÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion is somewhat narrow in scope. Not only is MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s work brimming with Christian influence, it can be argued the entire work was inspired by the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to return to God. The Sankgreall is a Christian story, not a secular one, and functions as a message about the importance of true redemption. Even though another knight in the tale Ã¢â¬â Galahad achieves ultimate greatness, the story belongs to Launcelot, who also serves as the metaphorical vessel by which Malory begins his own redemption following a life of ill deeds. In the closing lines of Le Morte Darthur, Malory makes a plea to his reader to pray for his soul. Specifically, the scribe writes: I praye you all, jentylmen and jentylwymmen that redeth this book of Arthur and his knyghtes from the begynnyng to the endynge, praye for me whyle I am on lyve that God sende me good delyveraunce; and whan I am deed, I praye you all praye for my soule. For this book was ended the ninth yere of the regyne of Kyng Edward the Fourth, by Syr Thomas Maleore, knyght, as Jesu helpe hym, for hys grete might, as he is the servaunt of Jesu both day and nyght. Amen. (698) Malory, the wordsmith most associated with Arthurian tradition, was a troubled man who spent significant time in prison. The very work for which he is famous, Morte, was composed while incarcerated for a series of violent crimes. Most notable among these crimes was the rape of a woman by the name of Joan Smith. In her essay Ã¢â¬Å"Malory and Rape,Ã¢â¬ Catherine Batt (1997) outlines that legal documents of the day reveal Malory of Newbold Revel engaged in these wanton acts in the year 1450. On May 23rd of that year and then again on August 6th, Malory invaded the home of Hugh Smith in Leicester where he Ã¢â¬Å"feloniously raped and carnally lay byÃ¢â¬ the manÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and then stole goods from the family. He was subsequently pursued by local authorities, arrested, and made to serve a not unsubstantial term in the mire of an English prison for his obscenities. However, behind those cold walls, Malory achieved greatness. His Arthurian prose retold legends, added new wrinkles, and produced a coherent, concise, canon for the King of Camelot and his Knights of the Roundtable. But as a lowly criminal, one charged with the heinous crime of rape, how is it appropriate for such a man to write of morals, God, and appropriate decorum and behavior? His stories are not of despair but of salvation. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s writing, while brimming with violence, murder, deception, and betrayal, is at its core a story of men seeking redemption, cautionary tales of the tragedies brought about by sin, and a guide for how humans should treat one another. It is firmly my contention that if not for MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s crimes and subsequent punishment, the author would have never produced the Morte, and Arthurian lore would not have its current lofty perch in the annals of British literature. It is important to realize because of the very nature of his writings and the overt moral plea he makes in the work, that Malory was heavily influenced by Christian doctrine and ideology. Furthermore, his closing lines in the Morte Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"praye for me Ã¢â¬ ¦that God sende me good deliveranceÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â as well as his promise that he had become a servant of Jesus Christ in the day and the night was a profession of faith, perhaps a faith he gained while in prison and pondering his own wicked deeds. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s writing and final plea indicate a man who achieved greatness, lost his way from God, and was committed to being restored. The story of the lost soul who finds God is a narrative of several characters in the Morte most noticeably Launcelot, who is an exemplary knight of the order but strays from God. And, like Malory himself, the knight finds God by his narrative conclusion. While we know little of MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s days in prison, his writing indicates a devout man who placed heavy emphasis on church attendance and knowing God on an intimate and personal level. Though a criminal, Malory was fascinated with church and the act of communing with God. McCarthy (1991) argues that Malory ranks his knights in a simple and singular way with piety serving as the measuring stick. This argument is bolstered by David Eugene Clark (2015) in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Constructing Spiritual Hierarchy through Mass Attendance in Morte Darthur.Ã¢â¬ In the Morte, Malory parallels the weakness and strength of all mankind to those of Arthur and his knights. Clark issues a tier ranking to the Grail knights which places Gawain at the base and Perceval and Galahad as the most exemplary. This ranking establishes the belief that Malory attributed closeness to God as being vital to the soul. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s own journey to return to God begins with his Grail knights, who are the best of u s yet still falter. None of these knights are of low moral standing, however. The base ranking of Gawain is simply a delineation to separate the noblest knights from those with more corrupted souls. Clark points out MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s tying of mass attendance to the piety of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s knights. The more frequent the mass attendance, the closer the knightÃ¢â¬â¢s place is to God (136). However, simply attending mass is not enough to exalt a knight. He must also be as free of sin and lead as clean a life as possible. Gawain only attends mass during Ã¢â¬Å"communalÃ¢â¬ times when everyone else is going (128). The higher tier knights spend a greater amount of time in mass, making it part of their daily rituals. What separates Launcelot, a tier 3 knight, from the upper echelon of Galahad and Perceval (tier 4) is not his lack of mass attendance but rather how he strays from God after being granted a glimpse of the Grail. After LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s moment of clarity with the Grail, he pledges his soul to God but then returns to Camelot and is once again a slave to sins of the flesh. He continues his affair with Guinevere, slaughters an innocent in Gareth, and is the catalyst for the demise of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom. Launcelot is symbolic of every person who finds himself close to God only to waver when time or inconvenience prove greater than the call for piety. It is ironic that despite the violence in which these men engage, they are still considered noble and even godly because of their church attendance. They put king (and queen in LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s case) above or at the very least next to God, and they violate GodÃ¢â¬â¢s commandment not to kill with impunity. While they are seen as the utmost of righteous by laypeople, MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s writing indicates God sees them for what they are Ã¢â¬â broken men. Clark writes that both Launcelot and Bors are guilty of grievous, even Ã¢â¬Å"deadly sin,Ã¢â¬ but to move closer to God they confess their crimes as well as repent, serve penance and prove themselves through Ã¢â¬Å"clean livingÃ¢â¬ (144). The task proves too great in the long term, and LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s faltering proves to be the detriment of all involved. This idea of the fall from grace of the soldier could be a testimony Malory writes of himself. From BattÃ¢â¬â¢s research as well as from the work of others, we know that Malory was a soldier and someone of reverence as he was elected to parliament. He was also a political activist in the most aggressive sense of the term as he engaged in raids to weaken and raise the ire of the Duke of Buckingham. The rape crimes as well as countless other wicked acts were carried out in a seemingly more brazen manner before his incarceration. The more criminal acts in which he engaged, the greater their severity became. But as he sat in prison, his stories created an idyllic world where good triumphed over evil until petty squabbles grew into major grievances. Cracks appeared in the foundations of the chivalrous oath the king established, and manÃ¢â¬â¢s sin proved too great for the kingdom to bear. Whether these writings were politically motivated or MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s statements on the sad state of his own life remain unclear. Writing during the era of the War of Roses, MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s stories have parallels to the real world in which he lived. However, his constant use of chivalric notions in the writing indicates he was influenced not only by Christian teachings but also by his own desire to make amends for his violation of the chivalric code he created. While Malory could have been simply telling a tale, the dedication, care, and detailed and intricate expression he gave to each page indicates a man attempting to impart a message. The character of Launcelot, with his failings and triumphs, indicates an author living vicariously through his creation. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s final plea in the book, for readers to pray for his soul, also indicates a man seeking forgiveness and his own redemption. At this juncture, it is important to return to the notion of chivalry and MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s own violation of the code. The Pentecostal Oath first appeared in the Morte and has not been found in any earlier incarnations of Arthurian lore. At its core, the oath is what Arthur believes to be the key virtues of a knight. By taking the oath, a knight becomes a member of the Round Table and is granted riches and lands. One of the chief tenets of the code regards the treatment of women. As it pertains to MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s crimes, there is one section of the oath to consider: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦and allwayes to do ladyes, damesels, and jantilwomen and wydowes [socour], strengthe hem in hir ryghtes, and never to enforce them, uppon payne of detheÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (77). The author failed to live up to this portion of his own code (and it can be argued that any authorÃ¢â¬â¢s words, especially codes of conduct, are their own beliefs). While Malory violated his own oath, we still must contend th e Morte is a testament of repentance and a plea to follow the Christian virtues therein. The prose clearly illustrates a man with an overt message of hope and a plea for readers to follow the virtues therein. If Malory remained a callous criminal, what purpose would it serve to write messages of hope unless he was seeking forgiveness for his crimes and had perhaps already discovered God? What has a cold criminal to gain by writing messages of love, piety, and crafting tales that are cautionary in nature and illustrate the suffering from sin? Malory was inspired, asked for the light of the Christian God, and according to his own words, found that light. However, despite these revelations, some have argued MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s work was not inspired by a Christian influence. Among the detractors is Alastair Minnis (2006), who argued just because the Ã¢â¬Å"SankgreallÃ¢â¬ tale deals exclusively with the Holy Grail, the entire Morte should not be deemed a Christian work (34). He says the work contains Christian elements but only in limited form, likening the work to being many individual keys for many separate beliefs rather than a skeleton key that opens the entirety of the work to Christianity. The challenge then, as Hodges (2007) explains, is to know which keys to use when they appear and how audiences are Ã¢â¬Å"invited to respond to what they find when the locks are opened.Ã¢â¬ Secularization aside as well as any arguments for or against Christian influence, the narrative of Launcelot and his path toward the Grail are keys to unlock MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s own hidden plea for redemption. Before an argument can be made that Launcelot was a representation of Malory himself, we must examine the literary character as well as the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s influences in the knightÃ¢â¬â¢s shaping. From a variety of sources across Europe, Malory pieced together an official Arthurian Ã¢â¬Å"canon.Ã¢â¬ Some of the canon, including much of LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s story, was tweaked for his own purposes, and others, such as the tale of Perceval, were altered considerably. The Sankgreall was inspired by the French text La Queste de Saint Graal. However, Malory trimmed the work to nearly one third of its original length. In his removal, the imprisoned author excised lengthy dogmatic dialogue. Mary Hynes Berry (2001) says the cuts create new perceptions of the Grail story and writes, Ã¢â¬Å"While we can never be sure of precisely what Malory did or did not understand, his deletions unquestionably follow a clear and consistent patternÃ¢â¬ (244). That pattern is to focus extensively on Laun celot. There are other knights Ã¢â¬â Bors, Perceval, Galahad Ã¢â¬â but it is Launcelot who is at the center of the plot. Specifically, the story focuses on one manÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to repent and please God while struggling with his own nature and the desires of the flesh. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s hero is deeply flawed, yet not unsalvageable. In the end, before the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s final act, Malory reaches his symbolic conclusion as he writes of LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s partial success in seeing the Grail, being denied the full glory because of his sin, and then promising to rededicate his life to God. The thematic lesson of the story is to constantly work to better one self. Launcelot is the best Earth has to offer. He is contrasted with Galahad, who Malory uses as the epitome of what all should strive to be. Galahad is the ideal. Launcelot is the reality. This father/son dynamic is also intriguing and will be discussed later in the work. Returning to MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s excisions, he essentially trims the fat of the French text by excluding sermons and lengthy spiritual sections that, as Berry explains, Ã¢â¬Å"develop significance but do not advance the plotÃ¢â¬ (246). This dogma drags down the text and while Berry and other Arthurian experts believe the cuts are made to keenly focus the message of hope and a return to God, some critics argue MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Grail story secularizes the material. This is a return to the Vinaver argument laid out previously. Snyder (1974) disagrees with Vinaver and contends MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Grail story is a larger statement on society and a manÃ¢â¬â¢s place in it as he struggles to go with God rather than go with greed of the flesh. Snyder realizes the Morte must be viewed as a whole and that the reader must understand the reason why the cuts were made. As a complement to SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s points, Moorman contends the failure of the Grail knights is not only the catalyst for the downfall of the Roundtable but also MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s metaphor for manÃ¢â¬â¢s failure in finding God. Moorman: Ã¢â¬Å"He pares away from the hermitsÃ¢â¬â¢ comments the purely religious commentary which is alien to his purpose, yet he is always careful to keep, usually in summation, the religious core of the argument presentedÃ¢â¬ (498). He agrees with the thesis of this essay and that VinaverÃ¢â¬â¢s secularization statement is flawed. Had it been MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to secularize the Grail, he could have very easily completely excluded the words of the hermits. Their inclusion, in fact, continues to slow down the narrative. If Malory had only been interested in continuing his tradition of detailed description of war and battle (the soldier in him) it would have been easier to go from one perilous adventure to the next on the Grail path rather than st op for life lessons from those who are passed on the trail. This was evidently not MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s wish. He had no intention of making the work about blood and violence. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Grail tale is an effort to illustrate a manÃ¢â¬â¢s repentance from his sin and a desire to find God once more. Continuing this line of thought, Riddy (1987) says MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s trimming of the source text was a Ã¢â¬Å"reaction against the too explicit . . . literary modeÃ¢â¬ (113-114). He continues noting the tone of the French text was Ã¢â¬Å"too didactic and MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection was simply to trim the fat no matter if it was religious or secular.Ã¢â¬ Kennedy (1985) posits MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of the Grail story Ã¢â¬Å"reflects fifteenth century writersÃ¢â¬â¢ attempts to reconcile religion with their own experience of lifeÃ¢â¬ (286). And considering MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s life experiences and his station in life as he wrote the Morte, it is quite easy to argue Launcelot was Malory himself on the page. The writing adage Ã¢â¬Å"write what you knowÃ¢â¬ was true in the Middle Ages as it is true today. Launcelot was Malory and Malory was Launcelot. LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s fall is foreshadowed in the very beginning of the Grail story as he kindly rejects his kingÃ¢â¬â¢s order to pull the sword from the stone: Ã¢â¬Å"Sir, hit ys nat my swerde. Also, I have no hardiness to sette my honed thereto, for hit longith nat to hange be my sydeÃ¢â¬ (498). While this act may seem small, it is a betrayal of one of the key decrees of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s Pentecost Oath. It is a parallel between Christian knighthood and its failings to the failings in our lives. Throughout the story, Launcelot meets hermits and damsels as well as other knights and is always deemed the Ã¢â¬Å"best of any synfull man.Ã¢â¬ He is the best in a sinful world and can achieve no more. When comparing Malory as a person to his creation in Launcelot, it is important to remember Malory does not condone LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s failings or sins. He paints a grim picture about what Launcelot (who is a stand in for Malory as well as humanity) brings about to those he loves simply be cause of his vanity, hubris, and pride. He outlines the common problem in men throughout time. Repenting and undertaking penance are not enough if you do not continue along the righteous path. The essential flaw in Launcelot is his instability. It is not his past sins that cost him but the continued failure to direct himself exclusively toward God. Like all humans, it is not about good and evil. There are far too many shades of gray. It is about the path toward God. Malory, writing of Launcelot in the weeks before entering Corbenic Castle, describes a man who is in constant prayer: Ã¢â¬Å"And the wynde arose and drove Sir Launcelot more than a moneth thorow the se, where he sleped lititll, but prayded to God that he might se some tydynges of the SankgreallÃ¢â¬ (575). He arrives at the castle, sees a guard of lions, and returns to his vessel to arm himself. Then a voice: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦wherefore trustist thou more on thy harneyese than in thy Maker? For He might more avayle the than thyne amour in what servyse that thou arte sette inÃ¢â¬ (576). Launcelot obeys the voice, walks freely into the castle. After a period of searching, he finds his way to a barred door that opens and Launcelot is granted a glimpse of the Grail. Awestruck and wanting to move closer, the voice tells him not to enter for he is not worthy to go further. The critical mistake comes when he sees a figure appear to be in distress. Disobeying the voice, he rationalizes, Ã¢â ¬Å"Fayre Fadir, Jesu Cryste, ne take hit for no synne if I helpe the good man which hath grete nede of helpÃ¢â¬ (577). Launcelot is thrown from the room and found the next morning by the people. He slumbers in a coma for 24 days. The door is shut; the way is shut, simply because Launcelot does not put his trust in God. The knight herein is cast back because he once again ignores advice and commands in pursuit of knightly chivalry. Rather than ignoring the warning and trying to aid the ill figure, Launcelot should have placed faith in God that the deity would protect those who have faith in Him. In other instances in the story, Launcelot has not taken to heart the words of hermits. These hermits arguably serve as messengers of God who deliver key information that can be followed or ignored. Ignoring the advice, however, has consequences. There are also numerous tempters and temptresses along the path to the Grail that all knights encounter. Chief among them would be the devil posing as a beautiful woman who tempts Perceval. A religious gesture (the sign of the Cross) saves the knight. So it is not all LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s fault, for how is a man to know who is friend and who is foe? In the instance of being on t he GrailÃ¢â¬â¢s literal doorstep, LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s ignoring the warnings results in the knightÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to realize God will help those who have faith. Perhaps if Launcelot had not been so rash and had faith, just as Daniel survived the lionsÃ¢â¬â¢ den, the knightÃ¢â¬â¢s story may have had a different ending. But even Launcelot had been granted more than a glimpse, he continues to fail his requirements of the Christian knighthood upon his return to Camelot. If Launcelot is a stand-in for Malory in this instance, what can be said of Galahad? As GalahadÃ¢â¬â¢s illegitimate son, an argument could be made to the parallel of the virgin birth of Christ in so much as he enters the world in unusual circumstances, was then raised by someone other than his father, and is the only soul who can achieve what others cannot. We know Malory had at least one son, but it is not possible to know if the father/son dynamic of Launcelot and Galahad is a result of MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s own desire for his son to have a better life than he or if Galahad is only symbolic of Christ as an example of what humanity should strive to be. In any event, it is easy to see LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s failings as greater than what they are because of the success of Galahad. However, the argument must be made that Launcelot is even more of a success as a knight because of GalahadÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements. The father wants more for the child, which is a statement that rings true throughout time no mater creed or color. In the closing pages of the story, Malory writes of GalahadÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the Grail quest and his rule over the land of Sarras. Galahad is approached by a descent of Joseph of Aramathy, who was trusted to protect the Grail, and takes the knight into Heaven. Before he goes, Galahad has a final word for his friends Percival and Bors: And whan he had seyde thes wordis [Sir Galahad] went to Sir Percivale and kissed hym and commended hym to God; and so he wente to Sir Bors and kyssed hym and commended hym to God, and seyde, Ã¢â¬Å"My fayre lorde, salew me unto my lorde Sir Launcelot, my fadir, and so sone as ye se hym, bydde hym remembir of this worlde unstable.Ã¢â¬ (586) In his final moments, his mission accomplished, he tells his friends to pass along a message to Launcelot, his father. The message is not one of love, necessarily, but one of encouragement. Remember the unstable world. Remember the perils of the world and the ease of sin. His message is one meant to give hope and encouragement to a father who is struggling to continue being a decent man in an indecent world. Along that line of thought, the message could be one of love although it is a didactic love. The roles of father and son are almost reversed in this instance which is the purpose of the Galahad character. The message is the same as that spoken by Christ. In this portrayal Galahad is speaking to Launcelot, Malory, and the reader. Launcelot and his son are very different souls. The son is set apart from other men and we are only aware of his near perfect nature. But in his nature, he displays few human emotions. Malory seems to have intentionally written the character in a way that emphasizes the humanity of Launcelot. Doing so, tells the reader that we can all be Launcelot and that the only thing that keeps partial success from blooming to complete victory is ourselves. Berry writes: Ã¢â¬Å"The meaning and the effect of LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s partial success depend on our clear recognition of the fact that his achievement is limited. Galahad provides the counterpoint. He embodies the idealÃ¢â¬ (253). So as Galahad succeeds and shows us all what can be achieved, Launcelot ends his journey. He promises to follow the advice of those he has encountered on the journey and reform his life of sin (the pride, adultery, and betrayal) and begin living in servitude to God. Launcelot remarks: Ã¢â¬Å"Now I th anke God for Hys grete mercy of that I hae sene, for hit suffisith me. For, as I suppose, no man in thys worlde have lyved bettir than I have done to enchyeve that I have doneÃ¢â¬ (578). These lines illustrate Launcelot does have a new understanding of what he should do, the life he should lead, the sins he should never commit again. However, the hearts of men remain easily corrupted and LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s pride and vanity show through upon his return to Camelot and his reunion with Arthur and Guinevere. The scene at the castle is grim as Malory describes the Round Table he returns to as having more than half of its knights Ã¢â¬Å"slayne and destroyed.Ã¢â¬ MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s foreshadowing of the brief reunion with the king and his best knight establishes the final act and final downfall of the kingdom known as Camelot. While Launcelot is MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s vessel for the story of redemption, it is not fair to pick exclusively on the knight. Moorman reminds that LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s failure lies in the inherit flaw of the entire system. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Camelot, and GalahadÃ¢â¬â¢s role in it, is representative of Jesus Christ (the overt Christianity and redemption angle are like sledgehammers) and his role for believers. Galahad is a stand-alone character, sent from Above to accomplish the single goal of the Grail quest. ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s knights could not accomplish the goal. It took someone far more powerful just as according to Christian doctrine Jesus Christ died for the sins of all humanity. Sent from God, Galahad reveals the inadequacies of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s court and the mystical and secular world in which they live. In the modern vernacular, Galahad is the clarion call to Ã¢â¬Å"get right with God.Ã¢â¬ This leaves Launcelot in a tragic light as Moorman writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Malory would thus seem to use Launcelot as a tragic hero, as the man whose greatest strength, his devotion to the chivalric code, is at the same time his greatest weakness and downfallÃ¢â¬ (501). In other words, the system itself is flawed as it calls for a pledge to Arthur rather than God. As has been established, MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite knight is undoubtedly Launcelot. To that end, considering MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s predicament at the time of LauncelotÃ¢â¬â¢s writing it is arguable that Malory used the knight as a stand-in for himself. MaloryÃ¢â¬â¢s plea to the reader in the closing lines of the Morte call for prayers for his soul, that he had found God, and was a warrior for Jesus in the day and night. It is only after Launcelot has lost everything, his king, his kin, his beloved, his kingdom that he finds ultimate redemption and forgoes worldly desires and knightly things. He takes up the role of a hermit, a man of God, and devotes himself to that service. In a final encounter with Guinevere, he laments his failure to live up to what he promised God upon awakening from his coma. He now begs the queen for a final kiss to which she refuses. Broken-hearted, surrounded by the irreparable pieces of his shattered life, Launcelot retires to a mass with the Bishop of Canterb ury which afterwards he falls to his knees and asks the bishop to Ã¢â¬Å"shryve hym and assoyleÃ¢â¬ him. Ã¢â¬Å"Than the Bysshop sayd, Ã¢â¬ËI wyll gladly,Ã¢â¬â¢ and there he put an haybte upon Syr Launcelot. And there he servyd God day and nyght with prayers and fastyngesÃ¢â¬ (693). The entire Morte, specifically the Grail section, indicates Malory had great desire to be absolved and serve God just as Launcelot did. Jailed, a life thrown away because of the sins of the flesh, Malory died in prison. Perhaps Sir Thomas Malory only desired one final chance. If granted, perhaps he would follow in the footsteps of Launcelot and serve only God. We will never know. All that any of us can say is that his greatest and favorite character did those things. The adage Ã¢â¬Å"write what you knowÃ¢â¬ applies. And Malory knew Launcelot; he knew mistakes; and according to his finals words, he knew God. Perhaps he found peace in his final days. Perhaps the tale of Launcelot and his pursuit of the Grail, subsequent failing, and ultimate renewal allowed Malory peace and calm in a life that had, by all accounts, been a whirlwind of criminality, deception, violence, and master story-telling. Works Cited Batt, Catherine. Malory And Rape. Arthuriana 7.3 (1997): 78-99. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Clark, David Eugene. Constructing Spiritual Hierarchy Through Mass Attendance In The Morte Darthur. Arthuriana 25.1 (2015): 128-153. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Henningfeld, D. A. The Cambridge History Of Literary Criticism: V.2: The Middle Ages. Choice: Current Reviews For Academic Libraries 43.6 (2006): 1010. Library, Information Science Technology Abstracts with Full Text. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Hodges, Kenneth. Haunting Pieties: Malorys Use Of Chivalric Christian Exempla After The Grail. Arthuriana 17.2 (2007): 28-48. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Hynes-Berry, Mary. Malorys Translation Of Meaning: The Tale Of The Sankgreal. Studies In Philology 74.3 (1977): 243. Literary Reference Center. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Kennedy, Beverly. Knighthood in the Morte DArthur. Woodbridge, Suffolk: D.S. Brewer, 1985. Print. Malory, Thomas, and Stephen H. A. Shepherd. Le Morte Darthur, Or, The Hoole Book of Kyng Arthur and of His Noble Knyghtes of the Rounde Table: Authoritative Text, Sources and Backgrounds, Criticism. New York: Norton, 2004. Print. Malory, Thomas, Sir, and EugÃ ¨ne Vinaver. The Works Of Sir Thomas Malory. n.p.: London ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1959, 1954., 1947. Louisiana Tech University. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. McCarthy, Terence. An Introduction To Malory : Reading The Morte Darthur. n.p.: Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, NY, USA : D.S. Brewer, 1991., 1991. Louisiana Tech University. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Moorman, Charles. Malorys Treatment of the Sankgreall. PMLA 1956: 496. JSTOR Journals. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Radulescu, Raluca L. Malorys Library: The Sources Of The Morte Darthur.. Medium Aevum 78.2 (2009): 340-341. Literary Reference Center. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Riddy, Felicity. Sir Thomas Malory. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1987. Print. Snyder, Robert Lance. Malory And Historial Adaptation. Essays In Literature 1.2 (1974): 135-148. Literary Reference Center. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. Tanner, Norman P. The Ages of Faith: Popular Religion in Late Medieval England and Western Europe. London: I.B. Tauris, 2009. Print.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Southern Methodist University Admissions Essay TopicsSouthern Methodist University is a Christian university that is one of the best colleges in the United States. The school is great, and it has some really cool courses for those who want to get a degree from this school.Unfortunately, these same students who would like to attend the school also tend to take a lot of courses that are not really very interesting. This is especially true with the seminars and electives that they take. It is important for prospective students to look at the school's offerings and pick courses that will be valuable and helpful to them.It is important to choose some of the courses that many other students take. Many of the schools require their students to take a lot of courses that are also popular and accepted by others. This makes these classes worth taking. If the students took them, then there is a good chance that their grades would improve.Students should also consider if they need to take any phi losophy courses at all at Southern Methodist University. In particular, students should check out the works of Carl Trueman. He has helped many students who want to attend the school to find the course that will be best for them. It is very likely that these students would benefit from his insights.When deciding which philosophy courses to take, students should check out the philosophy courses offered at the school as well. A lot of students who want to attend the school also take courses that are recommended by the philosophy department at the school. Students should consider what these courses are worth taking if they are interested in pursuing a degree at the school.When deciding which philosophy courses to take at Southern Methodist, students should consider the specific area of study that they want to pursue. Some students want to major in philosophy. Some students want to pursue an MA in philosophy. In either case, these students will want to take courses in the area of their interest.There are also courses that students can take on a certain topic. These courses have an experimental format that enables students to try out different approaches to a topic. These courses often allow students to learn about new approaches and see how they will affect a topic.